By Cristina Sin, Amélia Veiga, Alberto Amaral
This booklet offers a severe research of the implementation of the Bologna procedure, its achievements and outcomes, in addition to its mess ups and absence of convergence difficulties. over the past decade the implementation of the Bologna procedure, an bold reform of eu better schooling structures, has attracted awareness from politicians, teachers, scholars and students in greater schooling coverage. Taking Portugal as a case research, the ebook comprises an research of the perceptions and the practices, shaped on the institutional point in admire of the foremost targets laid down on the ecu point, specifically employability, mobility and popularity.
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Additional info for European Policy Implementation and Higher Education: Analysing the Bologna Process
The Hague: Netherlands Council for Social Development. 38 C. SIN ET AL. Newman, J. (2003). Rethinking governance: Critical reflections on theory and practice. Paper presented at the conference Changing European Societies? The Role for Social Policy, Copenhagen, 13–15 November. , & Pochet, P. (2001). Les indicateurs monétaires et non monétaires de pauvreté et d’exclusion sociale dans une perspective européenne. Rapport réalisé pour le ministère des Affaires sociales, de la Santé publique et de l’Environnement.
SIN ET AL. 2002: 10) where mimetic and normative isomorphism plays an important role (Radaelli 2000: 29). However, the OMC’s naming and shaming may not be effective for a number of reasons: the limited monitoring capacity of the Commission, as it relies strongly on data and statistics provided by national governments; lack of incentive and discretion of both the Commission and member states for shaming infringing member states; and, as obligations are not precisely drawn, member states can always make counter-claims discrediting an eventual shaming from the Commission (Idema and Kelemen 2006, 111–113).
Sustainable development. Good performers are labelled ‘heroes’ and the worst performers are labelled ‘villains’. There is also a Lisbon league table ranking countries on the overall Lisbon performance. CONCLUSIONS Policy making is a very complex process in the European Union due to a number of factors, including multi-level implementation, the large number of member states and their very diverse interests. Problems resulting from the traditional community method explain why member states avoid further delegation of sovereignty and prefer a nonbinding tool such as the OMC, the use of weasel words and the softening of the consequences of binding decisions.