By Gordon Morris Bakken, Alexandra S. Kindell
The Encyclopedia of Immigration and Migration within the American West offers even more than ethnic teams crossing the plains, touchdown at ports, or crossing borders; this two-volume paintings makes the heritage of the yank West a massive a part of the yank event. via sweeping entries, centred biographies, neighborhood histories, monetary company research, and demographic reviews, this Encyclopedia offers the tapestry of the West and its inhabitants in the course of quite a few classes of migration. the 2 volumes research the settling of the West and contain assurance of events of yank Indians, African american citizens, and the often-forgotten function of ladies within the West's development.
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Immigration and Migration in the American West
Various towns have been labeled all-black towns. ” While the earliest all-black towns were set up during Reconstruction in the South, those in the West began with the migration of blacks from that region to Kansas in the 1870s. Other towns were efforts to secure remaining open land in the West, especially in Oklahoma in the late 1880s and 1890s. Behind some settlements were race leaders who envisioned all-black towns bringing political and economic independence and a chance for their race to prove its worth.
They emphasized that it would be the only industrial school for blacks west of the Rockies. Also race-oriented was the contention that California had more than 50,000 blacks who deserved such a school. But they also gained the support of local white school officials, who viewed the endeavor as training the general population in agriculture. The hope that private funds would cover most costs was dashed in 1914 by a recession, opposition from black leaders in urban communities, and the death of Colonel Allensworth, who was hit by a motorcycle in Los Angeles.
Furthermore, Indian incomes lagged behind the national average. The 1970 census reveals that Native American incomes in Phoenix were even lower than the national average for the group. By now, 5,893 Indians lived in Phoenix proper, constituting less than 1 percent of the city’s population; the metropolitan area population had reached a total of 7,957 Native Americans. 7 percent poverty rate for the county. Nearly 40 percent of the total Native population lived in the low-income innercity area, while a cluster of middle-class residences had developed near the Indian High School.