By A. Nicolaides
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Additional info for Electrical and Electronic Principles II
The data needed are (a) bypass resistance values (only the smaller is needed in the triode approximation), (b) small-signal alphas for both parasitic transistors, (c) base/emitter saturation currents for both transistors, and (d) temperature. Whichever techniques are chosen to decouple the parasitic bipolars, they should prevent switching from the blocking state. Operating strictly in SAFE space guarantees a healthy, latchup-free CMOS technology. References  B. L. Gregory and B. D. Shafer, "Latchup in CMOS Integrated Circuits," IEEE Trans.
1, pp. 17-26, January 1990. 37 loop or hysteresis curve (Fig. 2a). The displacement charge density D is related to the polarization by (1) D=E oE+ P(C/cm 2 ) When the general properties and reliability issues ot ferroelectrics that are applicable to ULSI DRAMs are combined with the projected electrical requirements for 64-Mb and 256-Mb DRAMs, we can determine the required material characteristics of a ferroelectric dielectric. We can then identify those specific materials (from among those analyzed) that hold the greatest promise for use in ULSIDRAMs, and we do that at the end of this article.
At a characteristic field, a maximum alignment of the spontaneous polarization occurs and the hysteresis curve saturates at PSat because additional electronic and ionic polarization produced by an increase in the field is typically quite small compared to the spontaneous polarization. However, there are some sputtered thin films in which the polarization does not appear to saturate [3-7]. For the sake of generality, then, we to the pogive the name "maximum polarization" P'tIIn larization that corresponds to the maximum applied field (Em ax ) • When the electric field is removed, the ionic and electronic polarization decrease to zero.