By Marc Howard Ross
Ethnic clash frequently specializes in culturally charged symbols and rituals that evoke powerful feelings from either side. Marc Howard Ross examines battles over varied cultural expressions, together with Islamic headscarves in France, parades in Northern eire, holy websites in Jerusalem and accomplice flags within the American South to suggest a psychocultural framework for knowing ethnic clash, in addition to limitations to, and possibilities for, its mitigation. His research explores how tradition frames pursuits, buildings demand-making and shapes how competitors can locate universal floor to supply optimistic results to long term disputes. He makes a speciality of members' debts of clash to spot emotionally major concerns, and the ability of cultural expressions to hyperlink participants to bigger identities and form motion. Ross indicates that, opposite to well known trust, tradition doesn't inevitably exacerbate clash; really, the built nature of psychocultural narratives can facilitate winning clash mitigation during the improvement of extra inclusive narratives and identities.
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Additional info for Cultural contestation in ethnic conflict
These behaviors include emotionally significant ritual actions that link people across time and space while distinguishing between in-group and out-group members. Within-group connections are preserved in group memory through oral, written, and visual accounts and reenacted through social action and ritual performance. Culture from this perspective is a worldview that includes cognitive and affective beliefs about social reality and assumptions about when, where, why, and how people in one’s culture and those in other cultures are likely to act in particular circumstances (Avruch 1998; Chabal and Daloz 2006; Ross 1997).
While all groups are able to define outside enemies in cultural terms, all cultural traditions also contain core images of peace and peacemaking, which can serve deescalation and reconciliation (Gopin 2000). As a result, conflict articulated around cultural issues offers an opportunity to reduce the intense emotions associated with contested identities and can serve as a powerful mechanism to bring former opponents into new institutional arrangements. For example, in the American South, conflicts over the Confederate battle flag and civil war monuments have often been harsh and unyielding.
There were, however, pressures that limited the conflict to symbolic expressions. The Catalans wanted to show they could put on such a visible world-class event without any problems and to present Barcelona as a dynamic world-class city, while the Spanish hoped the games would showcase their country’s economic growth and political accomplishments since Franco. In the run-up to the games, conflicts arose continually concerning the designation of official languages, the flags to be displayed, and the anthems to be played.