By Pieter A. J. Nuyts, Patrick Reynaert, Wim Dehaene
This booklet describes the layout of absolutely electronic multistandard transmitter front-ends that can without delay force a number of switching energy amplifiers, therefore removing all different analog elements. After reviewing varied architectures, the authors concentrate on polar architectures utilizing pulse width modulation (PWM), that are completely according to unclocked hold up strains and different continuous-time electronic undefined. hence, readers are enabled to shift accuracy matters from the voltage area to the time area, to coincide with submicron CMOS expertise scaling. The authors current assorted architectural suggestions and examine them, according to their impact at the sign and spectrum caliber. subsequent, a high-level theoretical research of 2 diverse PWM-based architectures – baseband PWM and RF PWM – is made. at the circuit point, conventional electronic elements and layout innovations are revisited from the viewpoint of continuous-time electronic circuits. very important layout standards are pointed out and varied strategies are provided, in addition to their benefits and drawbacks. eventually, chips designed in nanometer CMOS applied sciences are defined, besides dimension effects for validation.
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Extra resources for Continuous-Time Digital Front-Ends for Multistandard Wireless Transmission
G. be a processor with DSP software. In this case, the signal that goes to the PA is entirely determined by software, and there is even more flexibility to add new standards after the circuit has been produced. This type of transmitter is called software radio (SR). 1 Situation and Motivation Data 9 DSP Front-End PA BPF Fig. 6 Fully digital reconfigurable multistandard transmitter Data DSP PA BPF Fig. 7 Software radio transmitter would also be incorporated in the digital block and replaced with a DAC.
8 illustrates several ways of representing signals. 8a shows a continuous-time analog signal x(t) (also known simply as an analog signal), which is a continuous function of time: At each instant t, the signal has a certain value x(t), which is most often a voltage or current. This value can change at any moment and it can have any value within a continuous range. e. limited to a discrete set of values. 8b shows a continuous-time digital signal, which results from quantizing the analog signal to a limited set of quantization levels.
3 Modulator Types This section presents the three main types of RF modulators, which differ in the way they represent the complex envelope using real signals and the way they convert this to the desired RF signal. These types are the quadrature modulator (Sect. 1), the polar modulator (Sect. 2), and the outphasing modulator (Sect. 3). 7): It has two input signals i(t) and q(t), both in the range [−1, 1], which are multiplied with two versions of the RF carrier that are 90◦ out of phase, and then summed, as shown in Fig.