Atlas of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis, 3rd Edition by Rene Rizzoli

By Rene Rizzoli

René Rizzoli Menopause is the time in a woman’s lifestyles whilst reproductive skill ends. Ovaries reduce their task and the creation of intercourse hormones ceases. this era can be linked to a wide number of signs affecting the cardiovascular and urogenital platforms, in addition to pores and skin, hair and bone. Bone capital is gathered via the top of the second one decade and is still kind of consistent as much as the time of menopause. intercourse hormone deficiency results in speeded up bone turnover, a adverse stability and microarchitectural deterioration, which compromises bone energy, thereby expanding bone fragility and, hence, fracture hazard. by means of the age of eighty, it's expected that fifty% of trab- ular bone could have been misplaced. average menopause happens among the a while of forty five and fifty four years around the world. This age doesn't seem to have replaced considerably over the centuries. against this, because the heart of the nineteenth century, existence expectancy, relatively in ladies, has elevated significantly, with most girls residing to the age of eighty years or extra in lots of areas of the area. which means on the age of fifty years, a lady will dwell for greater than 30 years with out bone security via intercourse hormones. This r- resents greater than one-third of a woman’s lifestyles. on the age of fifty years, the lifetime threat to adventure a fracture is ready 50% (ie, one out of 2 ladies could have a fracture in this period).

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A comparison of normal (a), and osteoporotic (b), trabecular structures is shown in these two scanning electron micrographs. In osteoporosis, the trabecular continuity is disrupted by trabecular perforation, and thin rods replace the normal plate-like trabeculae. The qualitative abnormalities in osteoporotic cortical bone are shown in the third microradiograph of a 100 mm thick section from the femoral shaft of a 62- year-old man (c). The substantial heterogeneity of the Haversian canal dimensions should be noted.

13) can be used with or without bone mineral density to estimate the 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture (hip, spine, wrist, and humerus) or of hip fracture alone [Kanis et al. 2008]. 14), and in the incidence of osteoporotic fracture. In the US, postmenopausal osteoporosis has repeatedly been noted to be more common in white non-Hispanic women and in Asian women than it is in Hispanic women and African-American women [National Osteoporosis Foundation, 1997]. This may be explained by the higher peak bone mass achieved before the menopause in African-American women.

1997]. Effect of fractures on independence, quality of life, and mortality Osteoporosis and the fractures it causes are a major source of morbidity. 33). 35). Hip fractures also lead to a greater risk of functional impairment and institutionalization. One year following a hip fracture, it has been found that 40% of patients are unable to walk independently, 60% cannot carry out at least one activity of daily living, and 80% or more are unable to carry out at least one independent activity of daily living, such as shopping or driving [Cooper, 1997].

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